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MEST Journal
DOI 10.12709/issn.2334-7058
ISSN 2334-7058 (Online)
ISSN 2334-7171 (Print)


In the next issues of the MEST Journal, among others, we will publish:
  1. Richard de Schweinitz and Walter E. Block

    PROPERTY RIGHTS IN THE POSTCOLONIAL WORLD
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    Abstract: Private property rights are the key to economic development. They assist economic actors in forming reasonable expectations in their transactions with others and incentivize users of property to internalize the costs of their operations. However, in many cases, and especially in the case of land, private property rights must be carved out of preexisting communal property rights. Some enclosure of the commons, some divvying up of the common lot into private parcels is required. Doing so incurs vast administrative costs to appraise the value of the property and assign it to private individuals. Most often, the only apparatus capable of carrying out such a project is that institution that holds a monopoly on the use of force. Thus, major ...     Private property rights are the key to economic development. They assist economic actors in forming reasonable expectations in their transactions with others and incentivize users of property to internalize the costs of their operations. However, in many cases, and especially in the case of land, private property rights must be carved out of preexisting communal property rights. Some enclosure of the commons, some divvying up of the common lot into private parcels is required. Doing so incurs vast administrative costs to appraise the value of the property and assign it to private individuals. Most often, the only apparatus capable of carrying out such a project is that institution that holds a monopoly on the use of force. Thus, major shifts in property rights regimes tend to be carried out by government bureaucracies. It is at this juncture that the historical development of property rights regimes between non-colonized and colonized societies is split. In non-colonized societies, the process of enclosure was carried out over long periods by domestic governments; but in colonized societies, the communal property was privatized all at once, and generally for the benefit of colonizers, not natives. The shock of imperialist violence creates an antipathy toward colonizers and, by extension, their economic regimes. Thus, when independence is achieved by colonized people and a new redistribution of property is required, the practice of privatization is maligned, and the collectivization of property is favored. However, such regimes reproduce the incentive structure of the commons, leading inevitably to the tragedy of underdevelopment.

    Keywords: Property rights; colonialism; economic development.

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  2. Maryna Resler and Diana Maksymenko

    STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PROVISION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT
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    Abstract: For agrarian production from possible risks, there is a risk that is related to a reduction of demand on agrarian products from the side of the world agrarian market. Also, world prices on the basic export products of the Ukrainian agrarian enterprises, in particular, grain-crops diminished considerably, which practically did unprofitable the modern Ukrainian agrarian. Contradictions that arise in the internal and external environment, complicate their activities and reduce the effectiveness. It is difficult for enterprises to adapt to fast and inadequate market requirements. Under such conditions, survive only those enterprises that pay enough attention to strategic analysis, to the choice of directions of activity, to the formation of goals, and ...     For agrarian production from possible risks, there is a risk that is related to a reduction of demand on agrarian products from the side of the world agrarian market. Also, world prices on the basic export products of the Ukrainian agrarian enterprises, in particular, grain-crops diminished considerably, which practically did unprofitable the modern Ukrainian agrarian. Contradictions that arise in the internal and external environment, complicate their activities and reduce the effectiveness. It is difficult for enterprises to adapt to fast and inadequate market requirements. Under such conditions, survive only those enterprises that pay enough attention to strategic analysis, to the choice of directions of activity, to the formation of goals, and strategic planning. So, strategic management becomes an indispensable tool for the existence of enterprises, and it is the means of achieving equilibrium and finding new factors for competitiveness in the future. Agriculture remains the basis of agrarian production today. The spread of negative trends in agriculture, increased competition, worsening of the social position of commodity producers, and the ineffectiveness of existing methods of managing economic processes require new approaches to improving the efficiency of agribusiness management and the formation of a new type of thinking from managers.

    Keywords: strategy, agricultural sector, strategic management, diagnostics, strategic goals.

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  3. Sergii V. Dzholos and Oksana Koshulko

    WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT IN ACTION: FROM PAST TO PRESENT
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    Abstract: The article presents the results of research concerning women’s empowerment from the past to the present. In the article, the places, and actions of women in the ancient world, in the Middle Ages and Modern period, in the late XIX - early XX century, as well as in the present time have been explored. The methodology of the research consisted of primary and secondary sources of information. The primary data consisted of field research, collected in some countries of Europe and Asia during 2014-2020, as well as the secondary data that have been collected from the books, chapters of books, articles, web resources, and ...     The article presents the results of research concerning women’s empowerment from the past to the present. In the article, the places, and actions of women in the ancient world, in the Middle Ages and Modern period, in the late XIX - early XX century, as well as in the present time have been explored. The methodology of the research consisted of primary and secondary sources of information. The primary data consisted of field research, collected in some countries of Europe and Asia during 2014-2020, as well as the secondary data that have been collected from the books, chapters of books, articles, web resources, and previous studies by an author on this topic. Besides, some important issues concerning women’s empowerment in action in the present time have been analyzed. In conclusion, women’s empowerment develops because some of the issues on women do not solve in some countries, among the issues are violence against women in general and domestic violence.

    Keywords: Women’s Empowerment, Women’s Role, Ancient World, Middle Ages, Modern Period

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  4. Alaa Mohammed and Fawzi Al-Naima

    MANAGING THE STATUS OF SUFFERING PILGRIMS IN MAKKAH VIA MOBILE APPLICATION
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    Abstract: The gathering of many people for pilgrimage in sacred places has been increasing in recent years worldwide. With the growing number of pilgrims, the difficulties facing the authorities are also expanding in the form of crowd control and accident avoidance. In such a huge gathering of people and the expected resulting stampede, many pilgrims, including young children and old people, get lost and many pilgrims die because of both natural causes and the stampede. This paper proposes a ...     The gathering of many people for pilgrimage in sacred places has been increasing in recent years worldwide. With the growing number of pilgrims, the difficulties facing the authorities are also expanding in the form of crowd control and accident avoidance. In such a huge gathering of people and the expected resulting stampede, many pilgrims, including young children and old people, get lost and many pilgrims die because of both natural causes and the stampede. This paper proposes a dedicated mobile solution to identify Muslim pilgrims to Makka experiencing such abnormal situations using QR Code with a mobile application called (Hajj ID). Each practicing pilgrim must wear all time an assigned QR Code containing all his/her necessary personal information, which can be retrieved to access the personal and medical information of the pilgrim in an emergency. The QR Code can only be read by authorized personnel using a mobile application specially designed for this purpose and the pilgrim status will change and be saved to the database and shown on the Hajj website.

    Keywords: Hajj, pilgrim identification, QR Code, lost pilgrim, crowd control, stampede

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  5. Olena Ivanenko

    USE OF OPEN SOURCES OF INFORMATION IN THE INTERESTS OF INTELLIGENCE AND ENSURING INFORMATION SECURITY
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    Abstract: The study of the experience of using open sources of information in the interests of intelligence-by-intelligence services studied the methodology and organization of the use of open sources of information in the interests of intelligence and information security of the country. Methods of collecting, analyzing, and processing information are considered, sources for information use are clarified. Information security is an integral part of national security and is closely linked to open-source intelligence. Nowadays, this type of intelligence is relevant because sometimes the ability to obtain intelligence through closed sources is significantly limited. The information obtained in this way should be...     The study of the experience of using open sources of information in the interests of intelligence-by-intelligence services studied the methodology and organization of the use of open sources of information in the interests of intelligence and information security of the country. Methods of collecting, analyzing, and processing information are considered, sources for information use are clarified. Information security is an integral part of national security and is closely linked to open-source intelligence. Nowadays, this type of intelligence is relevant because sometimes the ability to obtain intelligence through closed sources is significantly limited. The information obtained in this way should be carefully checked and analyzed, compared with the information obtained through intelligence and vice versa. The considered advantages of open sources of information are that the risk of failure of the agent is excluded or considerable means and efforts for the search of such are saved. The information provided by the World Wide Web is truly inexhaustible. In total, more than two-thirds of the intelligence obtained is obtained through open sources of information. The studied methods of working with information obtained from open sources have shown that analytical intelligence is a component of intelligence activities, which consists of identifying, evaluating, forecasting various political, economic, and social processes, events, activities based on information, mostly obtained from open sources, extracted by an exploration of other types (agency, technical).

    Keywords: open sources of information, World Wide Web, information security of the country, analytical intelligence

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  6. Dragan Vujovic, Aleksandar Gracanac, and Andrej Spirkovski

    IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF COURTS AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS BY SMART AV RECORDING SYSTEM
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    Abstract: The right to a fair trial is at the top of the human rights hierarchy in all democracies. In the past, primarily due to a lack of modern technical solutions that are available today, it was difficult to ensure a fair trial, as well as to check the correctness of the decision made in the courtroom if necessary. Today, audio/video recording of the court hearings is implied in many developed countries worldwide, precisely because of the transparency of the processes in which important decisions concerning human rights and freedoms are made, all with the goal ...     The right to a fair trial is at the top of the human rights hierarchy in all democracies. In the past, primarily due to a lack of modern technical solutions that are available today, it was difficult to ensure a fair trial, as well as to check the correctness of the decision made in the courtroom if necessary. Today, audio/video recording of the court hearings is implied in many developed countries worldwide, precisely because of the transparency of the processes in which important decisions concerning human rights and freedoms are made, all with the goal of justice being absolutely and uncompromisingly served. The goal of this research is to present the solution for the development and integration of a secure and accessible ICT smart system primarily intended for recording court hearings, but also recording for any established legal institutions that need for it, such as prosecutors' offices, police stations, social work centers, shareholders' assemblies, notary offices, etc. As far as joint-stock companies are concerned, such a system would ensure the necessary transparency in companies and facilitate the successful implementation of all other elements of corporate governance.

    Keywords: Court Hearing, recording, corporate governance, ICT, fair trial

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  7. Begum Burak

    AN ANALYSIS OF SERBIA’S CYBER-POLITICAL HABITAT
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    Abstract: In the post-Cold War era, new strategies and approaches emerged in both political and security-related issues. Since the late 1990s, the notions such as “cyberspace” ”cyberpolitics” and “cybersecurity” have taken a decisive role in the international political scene and the discourses of state elites. Today, the nation-states do not only use military tools to fight terrorism. Cybersecurity instruments are also used, especially in intelligence. This study is an attempt to trace the cyberpolitics practices and cybersecurity policies in one of Balkan states belonging to the post-communist state group, ...     In the post-Cold War era, new strategies and approaches emerged in both political and security-related issues. Since the late 1990s, the notions such as “cyberspace” ”cyberpolitics” and “cybersecurity” have taken a decisive role in the international political scene and the discourses of state elites. Today, the nation-states do not only use military tools to fight terrorism. Cybersecurity instruments are also used, especially in intelligence. This study is an attempt to trace the cyberpolitics practices and cybersecurity policies in one of Balkan states belonging to the post-communist state group, Serbia. For this attempt, this study will coin a new concept called “Cyber-political Habitat”. Serbia has a considerable degree of instability in internal politics; Serbia has witnessed serious protests and social media has been the primary channel through which the protesters gained support. In this regard, cyber-political habitat of Serbia needs a particular definition and attention. The main objective of the study is to shed light on the sui generis character of Serbia in pursuing the goals related to cyberpolitics and cybersecurity. Serbia as one of the Balkan states is a unique example because despite not being a member of NATO, Serbia has taken important steps in the cooperation with NATO in cyber-security area.

    Keywords: Serbia, cyber-security, NATO, post-Cold War era, cyber-political habitat.

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  8. Oksana Koshulko and Sergii V. Dzholos

    COVID-19 AND LABOR MIGRATION OF NEED, DESPAIR, POVERTY FROM UKRAINE TO EUROPE
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    Abstract: The article presents the results of research concerning the current issues of Ukrainian labor migrants to Poland and other European countries before and during the pandemic, as well as results of the analysis of the actions of the current Ukrainian Government’s attempts to stop migration flows from Ukraine. Primary and secondary sources of information have been used in the process of preparing the article. Primary data was collected using qualitative case studies conducted among labor migrants in Poland and Ukraine from 2018 to 2020. Secondary data was taken from Ukrainian, Polish, and other international sources of information. In particular, the secondary data of information was taken from open publications and open sources....     The article presents the results of research concerning the current issues of Ukrainian labor migrants to Poland and other European countries before and during the pandemic, as well as results of the analysis of the actions of the current Ukrainian Government’s attempts to stop migration flows from Ukraine. Primary and secondary sources of information have been used in the process of preparing the article. Primary data was collected using qualitative case studies conducted among labor migrants in Poland and Ukraine from 2018 to 2020. Secondary data was taken from Ukrainian, Polish, and other international sources of information. In particular, the secondary data of information was taken from open publications and open sources. Also, in the article, the four categories of need, which pushed Ukrainian labor migrants to work abroad, have been identified and characterized. Besides, an evaluation has been given of the Ukrainian Government’s performance, at the time when it was attempting to stop the migration flows from Ukraine to other countries of Europe but left no alternatives for its workers within the country. In general, analysis of challenges of Ukrainian labor migration to other countries of Europe during the international COVID-19 pandemic is a topical and timely subject for research.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Ukrainian labor migration, Ukraine, Poland, Europe, immigration policy.

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  9. Viktor Koziuk, Oleksandr Dluhopolskyi, and Kazymyr Voznyi

    ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES AND EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS IN THE EU: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
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    Abstract: The system of environmental taxes in EU countries is expected to have an impact on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since 2010 the emphasis on environmental regulation has shifted towards the EU 2020 strategy. This research continues the previous author’s studies about the environmental measurement of welfare economics. The article tests the hypothesis of the inverse effect of the environmental taxation level on CO2 emissions. The method of cross-correlation analysis was used to confirm the hypothesis. As the dependent variables were chosen emission indicators (CO2, PM2.5mg), and as the independent variables were selected environmental taxes, the share...     The system of environmental taxes in EU countries is expected to have an impact on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since 2010 the emphasis on environmental regulation has shifted towards the EU 2020 strategy. This research continues the previous author’s studies about the environmental measurement of welfare economics. The article tests the hypothesis of the inverse effect of the environmental taxation level on CO2 emissions. The method of cross-correlation analysis was used to confirm the hypothesis. As the dependent variables were chosen emission indicators (CO2, PM2.5mg), and as the independent variables were selected environmental taxes, the share of renewable energy, the number of businesses in the country that have an environmental certificate ISO 14001. The level of environmental taxation has a significant impact on the amount of CO2 emissions in the direction of their reduction. The share of renewable energy in final consumption also has a significant impact on the dynamics of changes in the amount of CO2. The analysis of environmental tax revenues in the EU showed the dominance of their fiscal component over the regulatory one.

    Keywords: environmental taxes, EU member states, pollution, public good, welfare economics, correlation analysis, energy tax, transport tax, pollution tax, resource tax.

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  10. Ales Kozubik

    FINANCIAL LITERACY OF THE MANAGEMENT STUDENTS – CZECH AND SLOVAK EXPERIENCE
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    Abstract: Financial literacy is becoming one of the key competencies in the 21st century. In its absence, it is virtually impossible to navigate the market for financial products and services and thus ensure financial stability throughout the whole life. The author presents the results of a survey of the financial literacy of young future managers who are currently university students. Based on a questionnaire survey among full-time and part-time students, the author detects the positive impact of the practical experience of external students on their financial literacy. The author uses an innovative metric in the form of a personal finance index to assess financial literacy. In addition to overall success, this approach also makes it possible to analyze knowledge from the eight components of financial literacy. By comparing the results in individual areas, the author reveals that...     Financial literacy is becoming one of the key competencies in the 21st century. In its absence, it is virtually impossible to navigate the market for financial products and services and thus ensure financial stability throughout the whole life. The author presents the results of a survey of the financial literacy of young future managers who are currently university students. Based on a questionnaire survey among full-time and part-time students, the author detects the positive impact of the practical experience of external students on their financial literacy. The author uses an innovative metric in the form of a personal finance index to assess financial literacy. In addition to overall success, this approach also makes it possible to analyze knowledge from the eight components of financial literacy. By comparing the results in individual areas, the author reveals that risk management is Achyla's heel of financial literacy. In addition to the knowledge component, the author also deals with the respondents' access to information sources. Based on these findings, the author formulates conclusions for the content of financial education. There is a need for a stronger link between the development of probabilistic thinking and the development of general numeracy with practical financial subjects. An important part of financial education is also the recognition of credible information sources.

    Keywords: financial education, financial literacy, financial management, questionnaire survey, decision making.

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  11. Anastasia Kurkina Stanislavovna

    FEATURES OF IMPROVING THE BUDGETARY SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
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    Abstract: This paper is dedicated to the main directions and areas of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation, functioning of budgets at all levels of the budgetary system, its development, and regulation to adapt the Russian economy to market conditions. This research consists of features that will be further analyzed and discussed. These features are related to improving the functioning budgetary system and the financial system as a whole. This work considers features of the modern budget system of the Russian Federation, analysis of the functioning and execution of the budget system of the Russian Federation on the example of the federal budget, the main problems of the Russian budgetary...     This paper is dedicated to the main directions and areas of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation, functioning of budgets at all levels of the budgetary system, its development, and regulation to adapt the Russian economy to market conditions. This research consists of features that will be further analyzed and discussed. These features are related to improving the functioning budgetary system and the financial system as a whole. This work considers features of the modern budget system of the Russian Federation, analysis of the functioning and execution of the budget system of the Russian Federation on the example of the federal budget, the main problems of the Russian budgetary system, and analysis of possible ways for improving the country's budgetary system. The key aspect of this article is the influence of the current political situation and economic factors on modifying the entire structure of the Russian budget system, as well as its budget policy, to further stabilize the economic development of the state. An important place is given to the formed proposals for improving the functioning budget policy and identified promising areas, which implementation can yield high results in the sphere of the budget system of the Russian Federation.

    Keywords: budget, finances, modernization, macroeconomic indicators, GDP.

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  12. Liudmila Lapitkaia

    APPLICATION OF CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES IN ACCOUNTING
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    Abstract: Traditional accounting in modern conditions of digitalization of the economy requires significant changes in terms of the use of new information tools. One of these opportunities is the use of new information technologies in accounting. These new information technologies include cloud technologies, which are a specific environment (for storing, processing, and protecting information) that combines technical tools, software, communication channels, and technical support. Services that may be based on technology (MCloud) are a software as a service (SaaS), infrastructure as services (IaaS), platform as services (PaaS). From the point of view of an accounting organization, the most convenient of these three types of services is the service as a software. Cloud technologies are the storage and processing of information on servers on the Internet. The positive aspects of using...     Traditional accounting in modern conditions of digitalization of the economy requires significant changes in terms of the use of new information tools. One of these opportunities is the use of new information technologies in accounting. These new information technologies include cloud technologies, which are a specific environment (for storing, processing, and protecting information) that combines technical tools, software, communication channels, and technical support. Services that may be based on technology (MCloud) are a software as a service (SaaS), infrastructure as services (IaaS), platform as services (PaaS). From the point of view of an accounting organization, the most convenient of these three types of services is the service as a software. Cloud technologies are the storage and processing of information on servers on the Internet. The positive aspects of using cloud technologies include the fact that accountants do not need to purchase, install the program on their computer, maintain it in working order, and ensure data protection and security. All this can be done in the cloud. Cloud storage - is online storage where information is stored on the network on servers provided by an information service provider for the use of customers. At the same time, cloud providers provide services for renting a server from various companies based on cloud technologies. The article analyzes the opportunities that cloud technologies provide in accounting, considers the advantages and disadvantages of using such technologies.

    Keywords: MCloud, accounting, “cloud computing” technology.

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  13. Alexandru Leahovcenco

    CYBERSECURITY AS A FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENT OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY
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    Abstract: The development of the digital economy is inextricably linked to cybersecurity. The article discusses issues related to the definition of cybersecurity, its elements, and examines data on cyber-attacks. The analysis of the tightness of the relationship between the share of the digital economy in GDP and the GCI index using a correlation analysis is carried out in this article. The issues of cybersecurity in the Republic of Moldova are also discussed and ways to improve it are suggested. Currently, there have been significant changes in the structure...     The development of the digital economy is inextricably linked to cybersecurity. The article discusses issues related to the definition of cybersecurity, its elements, and examines data on cyber-attacks. The analysis of the tightness of the relationship between the share of the digital economy in GDP and the GCI index using a correlation analysis is carried out in this article. The issues of cybersecurity in the Republic of Moldova are also discussed and ways to improve it are suggested. Currently, there have been significant changes in the structure of cyber threats. These changes are associated with discrete changes in the motives and tactics of cybercriminals. The reasons for enrichment contributed to the emergence of crypto miners. At the same time, there is a shift towards reducing the use of malware and complex infrastructure and moving to low-profile social engineering attacks. This article analyzes the situation in the field of cybersecurity in the Republic of Moldova and provides suggestions for its improvement.

    Keywords: cybersecurity, digital economy, cyber risk, GCI index.

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  14. J. C. Lester

    LIBERTARIAN PHILOSOPHY VERSUS PROPERTARIAN DOGMA: A FURTHER REPLY TO BLOCK
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    Abstract: This replies to Block 2019 (B19), which responds to Lester 2014 (L14). The main issues in the, varyingly sized, sections are as follows. 1 Further explanations of critical rationalism, the theory of liberty, and problems with the non-aggression principle. 2.1 The relationships among law, morality, and libertarianism. 2.2 The objective invasiveness of low-level radiation and that it is therefore a proactive imposition (albeit trivial) if someone inflicts it on non-consenting people. 2.3 The objective and subjective aspects of proactive impositions; and how clashes can be resolved.    . . .     This replies to Block 2019 (B19), which responds to Lester 2014 (L14). The main issues in the, varyingly sized, sections are as follows. 1 Further explanations of critical rationalism, the theory of liberty, and problems with the non-aggression principle. 2.1 The relationships among law, morality, and libertarianism. 2.2 The objective invasiveness of low-level radiation and that it is therefore a proactive imposition (albeit trivial) if someone inflicts it on non-consenting people. 2.3 The objective and subjective aspects of proactive impositions; and how clashes can be resolved. 2.4 How liberty relates to risk and self-ownership. 2.5 Libertarian initial acquisition versus absolute property rights by labour-mixing. 2.6 Organisational note. 2.7 Libertarianism and mens rea. 2.8 Libertarian rectification versus lex-talionis doubling. 2.9 Indirectly clashing rights, self-preservation, trespasser-hiker, flagpole-grasper, and landmine-layer. 2.10 A logical point is not a moral point. 2.11 Pacifism and libertarianism. 3.1 A weak criticism of utilitarianism. 3.2 Hedonometers; approximate interpersonal comparisons of utility imply libertarianism; what a libertarian is; libertarian rankings. 4. Libertarian philosophy versus propertarian dogma. Coda: the need to take seriously the philosophical problems with propertarian-justificationist libertarianism. Readers that might be interested include those engaging in libertarian philosophy and those using the Rothbardian/Blockian theoretical approach to libertarianism.

    Keywords: libertarianism; philosophy; private property; rights; crime; law; critical rationalism

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  15. Elzbieta A. Maj

    SOCIAL PROTECTION OF THE FAMILY IN INTERNATIONAL AND EU LAW
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    Abstract: People and families have been stricken by poverty from the dawn of time. As a result of the tragic events of World Wars I and II, the 20th century became the arena for the development of humanitarian law fundamentals. The most important international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Labor Organization, and the Council of Europe, started operating in the post-war period. The first declarations and conventions referred to the issue of social protection on the ideological and axiological level and emphasized only a need to provide poor families and their members with social security. Over time, the normative dimension became specialized, both concerning the content and details of the proclaimed regulations. The article, which discusses the issue of social protection of the family from the perspective of basic international and EU laws, has a character of a review. The analysis of the selected legal acts is centered both on the territorial aspect, focusing on the universal, regional (European) and EU trends, and the temporal one – presenting ...     People and families have been stricken by poverty from the dawn of time. As a result of the tragic events of World Wars I and II, the 20th century became the arena for the development of humanitarian law fundamentals. The most important international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Labor Organization, and the Council of Europe, started operating in the post-war period. The first declarations and conventions referred to the issue of social protection on the ideological and axiological level and emphasized only a need to provide poor families and their members with social security. Over time, the normative dimension became specialized, both concerning the content and details of the proclaimed regulations. The article, which discusses the issue of social protection of the family from the perspective of basic international and EU laws, has a character of a review. The analysis of the selected legal acts is centered both on the territorial aspect, focusing on the universal, regional (European) and EU trends, and the temporal one – presenting the evolution of social protection programs over almost one hundred years. The study deals also with a question about the normative cohesion of the universal, regional (European) and EU systems, as well as their interrelations, that is to say: competition or mutual reception. The conclusions from the research give a positive answer and emphasize the development and specialization of social institutions, both on the universal and regional levels. Furthermore, the conclusions indicate that, during evolution, social proposals have moved from the ideological level towards detailed pragmatism, harmonizing the three legal protection systems. The dogmatic-legal method and theoretical-legal method have been applied to verify the problems and hypotheses formulated, owing to which it has been possible to carry out normative analyses and corroborate them with the doctrine of human rights and social law.

    Keywords: social protection, social security, social welfare, law, human rights, family, poverty

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  16. Ruslan Mihalachi and Natalia Bancila

    A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO ENTERPRISE CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
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    Abstract: Crises are characteristic of any system, including economic entities in the process of its evolution. These usually signal the accumulation of a critical mass - of the restriction factors, the elimination or activation of which is necessary, either to prolong the reproduction process or to move to a new quality. The recent global economic crisis, related to the global pandemic situation, has made crisis management at both macro-economic and micro-economic levels one of the most important management tools to revive the critical situation globally. The crisis at all levels is always accompanied by a chronic organizational and financial instability, determining the need to develop measures that would be coherent in the new conditions of the economic environment accompanied by the political and social. The critical situation in the country's economy is confirmed by the worsening financial situation of domestic enterprises, the increase in losses, and, respectively, the number of enterprises ...     Crises are characteristic of any system, including economic entities in the process of its evolution. These usually signal the accumulation of a critical mass - of the restriction factors, the elimination or activation of which is necessary, either to prolong the reproduction process or to move to a new quality. The recent global economic crisis, related to the global pandemic situation, has made crisis management at both macro-economic and micro-economic levels one of the most important management tools to revive the critical situation globally. The crisis at all levels is always accompanied by a chronic organizational and financial instability, determining the need to develop measures that would be coherent in the new conditions of the economic environment accompanied by the political and social. The critical situation in the country's economy is confirmed by the worsening financial situation of domestic enterprises, the increase in losses, and, respectively, the number of enterprises on the verge of bankruptcy. Such a critical situation makes the issue of efficient organization of the management of the activity of enterprises in economic difficulty/crisis extremely topical. From this point of view, choosing the methods of crisis management and transforming them into an effective tool in entrepreneurship is a priority. The decisive role, in this sense, must belong to the diagnosis and financial forecasting of the dangers of crises at the enterprise by considering the factors that caused the crisis or even bankruptcy. The management of financial crises was constrained by the insufficient development of the informational-methodical base in this direction. In this context, not only the local experience but also the global one showed that the use of crisis management is quite difficult from a practical point of view, respectively, it requires an improvement and development in methodological-methodological terms, which requires evaluation of meticulous crises at the enterprise, which allows the diagnosis and prediction of crises with higher accuracy at each stage of its development.

    Keywords: crisis, risk, economic cycle, crisis management, diagnostic, prediction, systemic approach

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  17. Serghei Ohrimenco and Grigori Borta

    THE NATURE OF SHADOW DIGITAL ECONOMICS
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    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze, discuss, and develop a study of world universal digitalization processes as well as challenges and threats, and develop an approach to defining the shadow digital economy. Along with huge innovative achievements, digitalization processes are accompanied by the formation of a digital economy and the growth of illegal activities. Digital economy implies total globalization, creates an ultra-high competitive environment, provides a new quality of life, business, and public services. At the same time, many traditional areas of activity are being destroyed. In addition to understandable achievements, it is necessary to analyze new obvious and hidden threats that digitalization processes carry. The analysis shows the causes and factors of the emergence and functioning of ...     The purpose of this paper is to analyze, discuss, and develop a study of world universal digitalization processes as well as challenges and threats, and develop an approach to defining the shadow digital economy. Along with huge innovative achievements, digitalization processes are accompanied by the formation of a digital economy and the growth of illegal activities. Digital economy implies total globalization, creates an ultra-high competitive environment, provides a new quality of life, business, and public services. At the same time, many traditional areas of activity are being destroyed. In addition to understandable achievements, it is necessary to analyze new obvious and hidden threats that digitalization processes carry. The analysis shows the causes and factors of the emergence and functioning of the new segment in the shadow economy. The approaches to the definition of this category and its content are discussed. A classification of criminal-oriented products and services that are the basis of a highly profitable illegal business has been proposed. The problem of confrontation with Shadow Digital Economics acquires particular urgency in the face of the emergence of new overt and hidden threats to the individuals, society, and the state. The main components of the digitalization process are analyzed. Conclusions are drawn about the development of shadow digitalization processes and the formation of a shadow digital economy, which is directly related to cybersecurity.

    Keywords: digital economy; shadow digital economy; threats to the digital economy; information security; cybersecurity

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  18. Vladimir Olizarenko, Azamat Allaberdin, and Konstantin Vazhdaev

    JUSTIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS FOR THE DELIVERY OF DIESEL FUEL TO THE MINES
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    Abstract: The development of copper-pyrite deposits in the southern Urals is characterized by an increase in depth and, consequently, a complication of mining and geological conditions. As a result, there is a significant increase in the volume of work on the sinking of mine workings, delivery, and rollback of the extracted ore mass. Justification of management decisions on the delivery of diesel fuel to the mine is executed to find the optimal model of the technological scheme of delivery of diesel fuel (diesel fuel) and other fuels and lubricants (further – fuels and lubricants) in the deep horizons of the underground mine (in the sequel - in the mine) with the development of recommendations on designing an optimal model ...     The development of copper-pyrite deposits in the southern Urals is characterized by an increase in depth and, consequently, a complication of mining and geological conditions. As a result, there is a significant increase in the volume of work on the sinking of mine workings, delivery, and rollback of the extracted ore mass. Justification of management decisions on the delivery of diesel fuel to the mine is executed to find the optimal model of the technological scheme of delivery of diesel fuel (diesel fuel) and other fuels and lubricants (further – fuels and lubricants) in the deep horizons of the underground mine (in the sequel - in the mine) with the development of recommendations on designing an optimal model of method of delivery. The latter is achieved by comparing the competitive models of delivery of DT to the mine: fuel tankers (hereinafter-TK) on an inclined ramp, through a pipeline laid in a cased well and in specially equipped mine trolleys and their combinations with a reasonable choice of the optimal model of the technological scheme. According to the results of the research developed methods of rational organization and management of the movement of diesel fuel based on material flows on the principles of logistics concepts, ensuring the formation of counter-flows model logistic schemes. From the above studies, it follows that the delivery of DT to the mine in special trolleys is optimal with minimal time and cost of delivery to deep horizons Gaiskiy underground mine.

    Keywords: diesel fuel, tanker, model, scheme, delivery, horizon, economic efficiency, cost minimization.

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  19. Ivan Pontiff and Walter E. Block

    SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND WAGES
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    Abstract: We wrestle with the issue of whether or not discrimination, in favor of or against straight and gay people can account for wages divergences between these two groups of people. Section II is devoted to empirical evidence supporting the existence of a discrimination wage gap due to sexual orientation. The majority of studies provided have concluded that sexual orientation diminishes wages for homosexual and bisexual men, whereas it increases wage premiums for homosexual women. Discrimination due to sexual orientation, specifically homo/bisexual males, is present in foreign labor markets as well as in the United States. In these calculations all other factors, such as age, education,    . . .     We wrestle with the issue of whether or not discrimination, in favor of or against straight and gay people can account for wages divergences between these two groups of people. Section II is devoted to empirical evidence supporting the existence of a discrimination wage gap due to sexual orientation. The majority of studies provided have concluded that sexual orientation diminishes wages for homosexual and bisexual men, whereas it increases wage premiums for homosexual women. Discrimination due to sexual orientation, specifically homo/bisexual males, is present in foreign labor markets as well as in the United States. In these calculations all other factors, such as age, education, race, marital status, etc., are identified and taken into consideration when calculating the effect of sexuality on wage differences. Section III strives to explain why the discrimination wage gap cannot exist through a theoretical approach. In equilibrium, sexual preference can play no role whatsoever in wage gaps. We are never in full equilibrium, but the “expected value” is that we are always exactly on point, in the absence of any reason to expect over or under estimating prices or wages. Our expectation is that discrimination cannot account for gay people being paid less than straights, assuming equal productivity. At equilibrium, these economic boycotts are impotent due to profit opportunities. We conclude leaving the reader to decide which perspective is more evidently true.

    Keywords: Discrimination, prejudice, wage differentials.

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  20. Dubravka Skunca, Hedi Romdhana, and Rob Brouwers

    RUBISCO PROTEIN PRODUCTION – LCA APPROACH
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    Abstract: The objective of this paper was to assess the environmental performance of the system of RuBisCo protein extraction and isolation from sugar beet leaves. Life cycle assessment (LCA) calculations have been completed to identify and quantify the environmental impacts from a cradle-to-cradle perspective covering seven subsystems: milling and extraction, heat treatment, centrifugation, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, chromatography and spray drying. In this paper, six environmental impact categories were analyzed: global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, energy demand, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and land use. When RuBisCo protein extraction and isolation from different raw materials are compared, the only crop that has a lower environmental impact than sugar beet leaves is alfalfa, while the higher environmental impact has yellow mustard, ryegrass (mixture), Italian ryegrass, Brussels sprouts, English ryegrass, carrot leaves, leaf radish, and ...     The objective of this paper was to assess the environmental performance of the system of RuBisCo protein extraction and isolation from sugar beet leaves. Life cycle assessment (LCA) calculations have been completed to identify and quantify the environmental impacts from a cradle-to-cradle perspective covering seven subsystems: milling and extraction, heat treatment, centrifugation, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, chromatography and spray drying. In this paper, six environmental impact categories were analyzed: global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, energy demand, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and land use. When RuBisCo protein extraction and isolation from different raw materials are compared, the only crop that has a lower environmental impact than sugar beet leaves is alfalfa, while the higher environmental impact has yellow mustard, ryegrass (mixture), Italian ryegrass, Brussels sprouts, English ryegrass, carrot leaves, leaf radish, and chicory. The comparison of environmental impact categories of different protein concentrates indicated that protein powder containing RuBisCo affected the environment less than egg protein concentrate. Direct comparison to other highly functional plant proteins was not possible as these are not in the market or have no LCA data available. RuBisCo was more environmentally impacting than regular soy protein. Our results for RuBisCo were in accordance with the low end of the range of results for microalgae, which is representing Chlorella HTF (heterotrophic fermenter), for most of the analyzed impact categories. This study found that the largest contributor to the environmental profile of the entire system of RuBisCo protein extraction and isolation from sugar beet leaves is the usage of electricity, while mitigation options for optimization of environmental impacts rely on the energy pinch approach for spray drying.

    Keywords: life cycle assessment, RuBisCo, environmental impact, GreenProtein.

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  21. Nora Stangova and Agnesa Vighova

    EVALUATION OF THE ORGANIZATION'S PERFORMANCE IN CONNECTION WITH THE CREATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
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    Abstract: The presented article is a summary of theoretical approaches for evaluating the results of the organization in accordance with the reflection of performance and performance measurement, as well as its reporting in financial statements, which are in the sense of Slovak legislation, the final reflection of the organization. The company has its attributes and all the attributes affect individual indicators of financial analysis and they are the following: production program, the technology used, the complexity of products, participation of nature, technology and man, the composition of products, method and all operate in a three-balance system: cash-flow-balance sheet- profit and loss    . . .     The presented article is a summary of theoretical approaches for evaluating the results of the organization in accordance with the reflection of performance and performance measurement, as well as its reporting in financial statements, which are in the sense of Slovak legislation, the final reflection of the organization. The company has its attributes and all the attributes affect individual indicators of financial analysis and they are the following: production program, the technology used, the complexity of products, participation of nature, technology and man, the composition of products, method and all operate in a three-balance system: cash-flow-balance sheet- profit and loss statements. In this context, it is necessary to monitor the performance in the organization, which has a direct impact on sales and revenues and then on the overall economic result, which is the main indicator of the successful operation of the company. The transformation process indicates the process and transformation of inputs into a process towards its results, and the interconnection of the three-balance system points to the importance of three types of statements, as follows: profit as a result of management from the profit and loss statement is also a source in the balance sheet, the result from the cash flow statement represents assets in the form of cash in the balance sheet. All three statements provide relevant data for the financial analysis of the organization.

    Keywords: transformation process, balance sheet, profit and loss statement.

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  22. Marek Stych

    THE DEFINITION OF FAMILY IN INTERNATIONAL AND EU LAW
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    Abstract: The family is the oldest social group. It can be observed at all the stages of the development of particular societies and in all countries, regardless of their political systems. Therefore it is a natural element of the social structure, defined as the basic unit of social life. Along with socio-cultural changes, it undergoes various transformations. The changes affect the adopted models of family life or intra-family relations. They also leave a mark on the concept of family itself. Its definition and status are determined by factors such as: one's place of residence, being part of a specific social structure (education, professional group, financial situation), and religious affiliation. Another relevant factor is one’s political affiliation. Although the family is evolving ...     The family is the oldest social group. It can be observed at all the stages of the development of particular societies and in all countries, regardless of their political systems. Therefore it is a natural element of the social structure, defined as the basic unit of social life. Along with socio-cultural changes, it undergoes various transformations. The changes affect the adopted models of family life or intra-family relations. They also leave a mark on the concept of family itself. Its definition and status are determined by factors such as: one's place of residence, being part of a specific social structure (education, professional group, financial situation), and religious affiliation. Another relevant factor is one’s political affiliation. Although the family is evolving (e.g. the way we understand it and its functions are changing), it still remains the basic unit within which specific processes take place, such as passing on values, norms, and patterns of behavior. The article aims to present selected international, European, and Polish legal solutions about the definition of the family and some of its features. The interpretation of international standards relating to the family and its members aims to answer the question of whether the concept of the family itself is permanent in the law, or whether it is evolving. The research method used in the paper is the dogmatic and legal method. The article ends with conclusions.

    Keywords: family, marriage, man and woman, same-sex relationships.

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  23. Dmitry Vukolov Mikhailovich

    THE BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS: AN INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH
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    Abstract: Psychology as a branch of science could not take its place in the world for a long time. This fact says about a huge omission of a mass of intelligence by a human. However, the time overtook its own, and psychology became more significant for people and the economy in general. Being a science that would not exist without a human, it is impossible to omit its influence in it. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to consider the influence of behavioral mechanisms on decision-making by economic agents and, as a result, on economic growth. The theoretical part is closely interconnected with the practical part. This explains why the article does not have a clear separation between the two ones. Openings within the frame of behavioral economics embrace both the present ...     Psychology as a branch of science could not take its place in the world for a long time. This fact says about a huge omission of a mass of intelligence by a human. However, the time overtook its own, and psychology became more significant for people and the economy in general. Being a science that would not exist without a human, it is impossible to omit its influence in it. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to consider the influence of behavioral mechanisms on decision-making by economic agents and, as a result, on economic growth. The theoretical part is closely interconnected with the practical part. This explains why the article does not have a clear separation between the two ones. Openings within the frame of behavioral economics embrace both the present and the past, which are aimed at showing both the fundamental nature of this knowledge and its undisputable relevance. These factors together represent a brief history of the development of this branch of knowledge. Through the prism of the main achievements of scientists of different years in the sphere of behavioral economics the irrational behavior of consumers was analyzed. This behavior was reflected in the examples, which showed simultaneously both: the main flaws of the classical macroeconomic models, and the importance of considering behavioral economics when analyzing aggregate demand and aggregate supply.

    Keywords: behavioral economics, decision making, effect, expectations, inflation, economic growth, rationality.

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  24. Desislava Yosifova and Magdalena Petrova-Kirova

    INDICES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPАNIES FROM THE AUTOMOBILE SECTOR IN THE CONTEXT OF INTEGRATED REPORTING
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    Abstract: Until very recently business operations were most strongly motivated by the ambition to maximize financial return and the purpose of the corporate accounting statements was to present information mainly on the cash flow, the financial and the asset position, as well as the financial outcome of the company. Development of world economy and the thereby arising positive and negative effects on society are not fully covered by conventional accounting and financial reporting system. The insufficiency of such information obstructs satisfying the information needs of various interested parties, resulting in growing expectations and pressure over the companies to accept not only the positive, but also the negative effect on their behaviour in economic, environmental and social aspect. All of the above prerequisites, along with the capital restriction the companies are facing, require a change towards an appropriate upgrade of traditional ...     Until very recently business operations were most strongly motivated by the ambition to maximize financial return and the purpose of the corporate accounting statements was to present information mainly on the cash flow, the financial and the asset position, as well as the financial outcome of the company. Development of world economy and the thereby arising positive and negative effects on society are not fully covered by conventional accounting and financial reporting system. The insufficiency of such information obstructs satisfying the information needs of various interested parties, resulting in growing expectations and pressure over the companies to accept not only the positive, but also the negative effect on their behaviour in economic, environmental and social aspect. All of the above prerequisites, along with the capital restriction the companies are facing, require a change towards an appropriate upgrade of traditional corporate reporting. This problem is particularly significant for Bulgaria, which, being a member state of the EU, is expected to apply all European Directives for implementation of environmental requirements essentially related to transport sector. In addition, the country’s geostrategic position, through which territory 5 of the ten Pan-European transport corridors run through, makes the problems related to the development and the application of methodologies and the toolkit for covering, registration and reporting of the effect of transport companies’ activities (especially those in the automobile sector) on environment, people and society as a whole, particularly important. Integrated reporting is ready to face these challenges and to solve a significant part of the problematic fields, which, in complex with the data and the indicators, registered and accounted for by traditional financial reporting, can provide together, to a sufficient and full extent, the demand for information in the implementation of environmental policy on national, local and global scale.

    Keywords: automobile transport, integrated reporting, sustainable development, capital types, key indicators.

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  25. Nataliia Zachosova, Zinaida Zyvko, and Oleksii Koval

    INDICES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPАNIES FROM THE AUTOMOBILE SECTOR IN THE CONTEXT OF INTEGRATED REPORTING
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    Abstract: The need to form a system of economic security for the effective operation of financial institutions is determined. Peculiarities of ensuring economic security of different types of financial institutions are found out, characteristic features of functional systems of economic security of financial intermediaries are revealed. It is offered to understand the management of economic security of financial institutions as a direction of management activities aimed at achieving a high level of protection of the institution's resources from the negative impact of internal and external threats by implementing a wide range of management decisions to use available opportunities and resources while providing financial services. The basics of the mechanism of economic security management of financial institutions are formed. It is assumed that the organization of the economic security system ...     The need to form a system of economic security for the effective operation of financial institutions is determined. Peculiarities of ensuring economic security of different types of financial institutions are found out, characteristic features of functional systems of economic security of financial intermediaries are revealed. It is offered to understand the management of economic security of financial institutions as a direction of management activities aimed at achieving a high level of protection of the institution's resources from the negative impact of internal and external threats by implementing a wide range of management decisions to use available opportunities and resources while providing financial services. The basics of the mechanism of economic security management of financial institutions are formed. It is assumed that the organization of the economic security system of a financial institution is carried out in several stages, such as the formation of the economic security system, ensuring the economic security system, identification, assessment, ranking of threats, and development of countermeasures; assessing the level of readiness of institutions to implement a mechanism for managing economic security; assessment of the level of economic security, development of management decisions. It is determined that the purpose of economic security management is to achieve the maximum possible level of realization of the institution's interests and meet the interests and needs of clients with optimal resource costs to minimize the impact of threats that accompany the activities of institutions.

    Keywords: economics, management, security, financial institutions, financial markets.

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  26. J. C. Lester

    IMMIGRATION AND LIBERTARIANISM: OPEN BORDERS VERSUS DIRECTIONALISM
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    Abstract: To explain the correct libertarian approach to immigration, a thought-experiment posits a minimal-state libertarian UK and then the introduction of several relevant anti-libertarian policies with their increasingly disastrous effects. It is argued that the reverse of these imagined policies, as far as is politically possible, must be the correct way forward. This framing is intended to counter the tendency for many articles to misapply libertarian principles to the current messy situation on the mistaken assumption that a state need only stop interfering without rectifying or adjusting for its previous interferences. The relevant parts of various open-border texts are then criticised    . . .     To explain the correct libertarian approach to immigration, a thought-experiment posits a minimal-state libertarian UK and then the introduction of several relevant anti-libertarian policies with their increasingly disastrous effects. It is argued that the reverse of these imagined policies, as far as is politically possible, must be the correct way forward. This framing is intended to counter the tendency for many articles to misapply libertarian principles to the current messy situation on the mistaken assumption that a state need only stop interfering without rectifying or adjusting for its previous interferences. The relevant parts of various open-border texts are then criticised in light of this and for other errors, in particular for overlooking the likely huge scale of immigration as indicated by Gallup surveys. Additional criticisms are addressed in footnotes throughout. The conclusion outlines three broad options on immigration and suggests that directionally-libertarian policies are both more libertarian and practical than having states open their borders. The readers that might be interested in this subject matter include those engaging in libertarian philosophy, economics, and political theory.

    Keywords: libertarianism; immigration policy; philosophy; private property; open borders; directionalism.

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  27. Svitlana Luchyk and Margaryta Luchyk

    HUMAN CAPITAL OF UKRAINE: INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT
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    Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems of inclusive development of human capital in Ukraine. It was found out that the level of inclusiveness of economic development in Ukraine is low and has decreased in recent years. One of the reasons for this is the lack of assessment of the impact of economic reforms on the development of human capital in the country, which is a competitive advantage of Ukraine. As the result, we observe the decline in labor and social activity of the population. However, the development of a new generation of digital technologies translates into the virtual environment a significant part of labor relations and entire segments of employment, the flexibility of which is greatly increased. Digitization requires the formation ...     The article is devoted to the problems of inclusive development of human capital in Ukraine. It was found out that the level of inclusiveness of economic development in Ukraine is low and has decreased in recent years. One of the reasons for this is the lack of assessment of the impact of economic reforms on the development of human capital in the country, which is a competitive advantage of Ukraine. As the result, we observe the decline in labor and social activity of the population. However, the development of a new generation of digital technologies translates into the virtual environment a significant part of labor relations and entire segments of employment, the flexibility of which is greatly increased. Digitization requires the formation of new competencies in the labor market, which entails the restructuring of the entire system of education. Ukrainian human capital is characterized by high mortality among the working population, deepening on demographic aging and depopulation, migration of the highly educated population, and increasing labor migration. It has been investigated that the population of Ukraine has a high level of education, especially a high proportion of young people with higher education. The level of inclusive education at all levels is gradually increasing. The need for significant investment in human capital to restructure all levels of education according to the requirements of inclusiveness and the formation of inclusive human capital policy, in general for economic growth and strengthening of Ukraine is substantiated.

    Keywords: human capital, inclusive growth, inclusive education, inclusive society, inclusive policy.

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